Printed circuit boards are the foundation of electronics, housing components like integrated circuits, resistors, and capacitors. One fundamental component found across nearly every circuit board is the transistor. But what exactly does a transistor do?
Transistors enable key functions like amplification, switching, and voltage conversion that underpin modern electronics. This article provides a comprehensive look at transistor operation including:
- Transistor types and configurations
- How transistors regulate current flow
- Switching and amplification capabilities
- Supporting passive components
- Evolution of transistors over time
- Frequently asked questions
By understanding transistor principles and circuit board applications, engineers can fully leverage these essential devices.
Transistor Types and Configurations
There are two primary transistor families used on circuit boards:
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs)
BJTs contain three doped semiconductor regions called the collector, base, and emitter. Applying a voltage across these terminals controls current flow.
Field Effect Transistors (FETs)
FETs use an electric field generated by voltage on a gate terminal to regulate current flow in a channel between source and drain terminals.
Within these families, specific transistor configurations include:
NPN and PNP BJTs
NPN and PNP variants utilize opposite doping types to direct current in complementary ways.
N-Channel and P-Channel FETs
N-Channel and P-Channel FETs leverage electron or hole majority carriers, respectively, to conduct current.
JFETs and MOSFETs
JFETs regulate current via a junction gate while MOSFETs use an insulated metal gate structure to control channel formation.
This diversity of transistors provides designers with flexible options for meeting circuit requirements.
How Transistors Regulate Current
The key function of transistors is controlling current flow. BJTs and FETs modulate conductivity between their terminals by:
1. Applying Base/Gate Voltage
Voltage applied to the base (BJT) or gate (FET) terminal controls the transistor action. Varying this voltage changes the current flow through the transistor.
2. Opening/Closing Channel
In response, the base-emitter (BJT) or source-drain (FET) channel opens or closes to allow more or less emitter/source to collector/drain current.
3. Amplifying Current
A small base/gate current controls a proportionally larger emitter/source current, amplifying the effect. Large currents can be switched with minimal gate control.
4. Operating as Analog Valve
Continuously variable voltage on base/gate smoothly transitions the transistor between saturation and cutoff, realizing an analog valve for current.
So in summary, transistors utilize a small steering signal to control a much larger load signal, acting as a current gate.
One major application of transistors on circuit boards is digitally switching signals and power:
1. Logic Gate Functionality
Transistors readily implement fundamental Boolean logic like AND, OR, NAND, and NOR gates by operating between cut-off and saturation.
2. Digital Signal Switching
This enables high speed switching of logic signals between 0s and 1s in digital circuits. FETs excel at fast logic switching due to high input impedance.
3. Power Switching
Connecting transistors to control power rails or devices enables switching of higher voltages and currents. Motors, lamps, and power electronics rely on transistor switches.
4. Snake Ladder Circuitry
Collections of transistors digitally passing signals along successive stages form snake ladder logic to implement more complex logic functions.
So whether handling fast logic signals or high power loads, transistors provide the solid-state switching capability that enables digital circuitry.
In addition to digital switching, transistors are commonly used as analog amplifiers:
1. Current Amplification
A small input bias current controls a larger output collector/drain current, amplifying the input signal while matching its waveform.
2. Voltage Amplification
Connecting load resistances to transistors converts the amplified current to an output voltage, achieving voltage amplification.
3. Audio Amplifiers
Transistors enable audio amplification by strengthening weak audio signals from microphones, guitars and other sources to drive speakers, headphones, recording equipment, etc.
4. RF Amplifiers
At high frequencies, transistors provide the gain needed for amplifying RF signals to boost range and strength for communication links, radar systems, broadcasting, and more.
5. Instrumentation Amplifiers
Precision transistor amplifiers boost very small sensor signals to measurable levels for scientific and industrial instrumentation.
So whether driving speakers in a home stereo or detecting subtle seismic vibrations, transistors provide the amplification essential for electronics to interface with the human and physical world.
Supporting Passive Components
To properly operate transistors in these switching and amplification circuits, additional passive components are utilized:
Bias resistors provide gate/base voltage while load resistors convert amplified current to voltage. Output resistors match impedances.
Coupling and bypass capacitors block DC current flow while allowing AC signals to pass for amplification.
Inductors impedance helps shape amplifier frequency response and bandwidth characteristics.
Diodes protect transistors from reverse voltages and excessive switching transients while also enabling rectification and regulation.
So while transistors actively control signals, surrounding resistors, capacitors, inductors, and diodes fine tune performance to meet circuit requirements.
Evolution of Transistors
Since their invention in 1947, transistor design has evolved dramatically:
First discrete bipolar junction transistors occupy large metal packages. Limited to kHz frequencies with Watts of power handling.
Smaller plastic-encased transistors enable portable electronics like radios. Triangle logo denotes PNP vs NPN polarity.
Planar transistors create integrated circuits with multiple transistors on silicon dice. Opens door to microelectronics.
Advances in photolithography drive transistor feature size smaller for more complex ICs with higher speed and density.
CMOS transistors become dominant for logic and microprocessors. NMOS used for memories providing GigaHertz switching speeds.
Power MOSFETs introduce high speed switching for power conversion applications. HEMTs gain adoption at microwave frequencies.
Size scaling continues following Moore’s Law towards deep sub-micron transistors enabling today’s microprocessors with billions of transistors.
So transistors continue advancing to provide the foundation for modern computation, communication, and technology.
Frequently Asked Questions
Some common questions when using transistors on circuit boards:
How is the correct transistor selected for a circuit?
Match voltage and power handling needs. Consider frequency response. Factor in operating environment. Analyze biasing requirements.
What determines transistor package size?
Current capacity, power dissipation, and number of terminals dictate package size. Small signal transistors come in tiny packages.
How are transistors damaged?
Excess current when saturated, over-voltage on terminals, electrostatic discharge, and heat can all damage transistors.
What is thermal runaway?
Leakage current increases with temperature, potentially causing thermal runaway where a transistor continuously heats up leading to failure.
Why do transistors need heat sinks?
Heats sinks dissipate heat by increasing the effective surface area to maintain a safe operating temperature.
In summary, properly selecting, configuring and protecting the transistor is key to leveraging its capabilities while avoiding failure.
Transistors enable fundamental current control and amplification functions that underpin modern electronic systems. Through switching and amplification, transistors shape signals and power levels to perform logic, compute data, drive actuators, transmit information, and much more.
Understanding how transistors regulate current flow in response to an input signal provides insight into their versatile role on circuit boards for analog and digital applications. With new transistor materials, designs, and fabrication methods continuing to evolve, these essential semiconductors will enable electronics to reach even greater capabilities.