An Industrial Process of Printed Circuit Board Assembly by RAYPCB

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Introduction to PCB Assembly

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) assembly is the process of attaching electronic components to a PCB to create a functional electronic assembly. The PCB acts as the base and provides electrical connectivity between the various components through conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.

PCB assembly is a crucial step in electronics manufacturing and requires precision, skill, and adherence to strict quality standards. RAYPCB, a leading PCB assembly service provider, follows a meticulous industrial process to ensure the highest quality PCB assemblies for its clients.

The PCB Assembly Process at RAYPCB

The PCB assembly process at RAYPCB involves several key steps:

  1. PCB Fabrication
  2. Solder Paste Stenciling
  3. Component Placement
  4. Reflow Soldering
  5. Inspection and Quality Control
  6. Final Assembly and Packaging

Let’s explore each of these steps in detail.

1. PCB Fabrication

The first step in the PCB assembly process is the fabrication of the bare PCB. This involves:

  • Designing the PCB layout using CAD software
  • Printing the design onto a photoresist layer on a Copper-Clad Laminate
  • Etching away the unwanted copper to create the desired circuit pattern
  • Drilling holes for through-hole components
  • Applying a soldermask and silkscreen for protection and labeling

RAYPCB uses state-of-the-art equipment and high-quality materials to fabricate PCBs that meet the most stringent industry standards.

2. Solder Paste Stenciling

Once the bare PCB is ready, the next step is to apply solder paste to the pads where the surface mount components will be placed. This is done using a stencil, which is a thin metal sheet with openings that correspond to the pads on the PCB.

The stencil is aligned with the PCB, and solder paste is spread over it using a squeegee. The solder paste is a mixture of tiny solder particles and flux, which helps the solder adhere to the pads and removes oxides during the soldering process.

RAYPCB uses high-precision stencils and automated solder paste inspection (SPI) to ensure the correct amount of solder paste is applied to each pad.

3. Component Placement

After the solder paste is applied, the next step is to place the surface mount components onto the PCB. This is done using a pick-and-place machine, which uses a vacuum nozzle to pick up components from a tape reel or tray and place them onto the PCB with high accuracy.

The pick-and-place machine is programmed with the coordinates of each component’s placement location on the PCB. It can place thousands of components per hour with great precision.

RAYPCB uses advanced pick-and-place machines with vision systems to ensure accurate component placement and to detect any missing or misaligned components.

4. Reflow Soldering

Once all the surface mount components are placed, the PCB goes through a reflow soldering process. This involves passing the PCB through a reflow oven, which heats the board to a specific temperature profile.

The heat melts the solder paste, which then forms a metallurgical bond between the component leads and the pads on the PCB. The flux in the solder paste also activates, cleaning the surfaces and preventing oxidation.

The reflow soldering process is carefully controlled to ensure the solder joints are strong and reliable. The temperature profile is optimized for the specific solder paste and components used.

RAYPCB uses advanced reflow ovens with multiple heating zones and precise temperature control to ensure consistent and high-quality solder joints.

5. Inspection and Quality Control

After the reflow soldering process, the PCB undergoes a thorough inspection and quality control process to ensure it meets the required specifications and standards. This involves:

  • Visual inspection for any defects or issues
  • Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) to detect any missing or misaligned components, solder bridges, or other defects
  • X-ray inspection for hidden defects or voids in the solder joints
  • Electrical testing to verify the functionality of the PCB

RAYPCB has a dedicated quality control team that follows strict protocols and uses advanced inspection equipment to ensure every PCB assembly meets the highest quality standards.

6. Final Assembly and Packaging

The final step in the PCB assembly process is to assemble any additional components, such as through-hole components, connectors, or mechanical parts, and to package the finished PCB assembly for shipping.

Through-hole components are inserted manually and soldered using a Wave Soldering machine or hand soldering. Connectors and other mechanical parts are also assembled at this stage.

The finished PCB assembly is then tested again for functionality and packaged in anti-static bags or boxes for protection during shipping.

RAYPCB offers a range of final assembly and packaging options to meet the specific needs of each client.

Benefits of PCB Assembly by RAYPCB

There are several benefits to choosing RAYPCB for your PCB assembly needs:

  • Quality: RAYPCB follows strict quality control protocols and uses advanced equipment to ensure the highest quality PCB assemblies.
  • Reliability: With years of experience and a track record of success, RAYPCB is a reliable partner for your PCB assembly needs.
  • Speed: RAYPCB’s streamlined process and advanced equipment allow for fast turnaround times without compromising quality.
  • Flexibility: RAYPCB offers a range of PCB assembly services and can accommodate a variety of PCB designs and components.
  • Cost-effectiveness: RAYPCB’s efficient process and economies of scale allow for competitive pricing without sacrificing quality.

PCB Assembly Equipment Used by RAYPCB

RAYPCB uses a range of advanced equipment in its PCB assembly process, including:

Equipment Function
Stencil Printer Applies solder paste to the PCB pads
Pick-and-Place Machine Places surface mount components onto the PCB
Reflow Oven Melts the solder paste to form solder joints
Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) Machine Inspects the PCB for defects and issues
X-Ray Inspection Machine Inspects hidden solder joints for voids or defects
Wave Soldering Machine Solders through-hole components
Functional Testing Equipment Verifies the functionality of the PCB assembly

PCB Assembly Standards and Certifications

RAYPCB adheres to a range of industry standards and certifications to ensure the quality and reliability of its PCB assemblies. These include:

  • IPC-A-610: Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies
  • IPC-J-STD-001: Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies
  • ISO 9001: Quality Management Systems
  • ISO 14001: Environmental Management Systems
  • UL: Underwriters Laboratories certification for safety

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

1. What is the minimum order quantity for PCB assembly at RAYPCB?

RAYPCB offers low minimum order quantities (MOQs) for PCB assembly, starting from just 5 pieces. This allows for prototyping and small-batch production.

2. What is the typical lead time for PCB assembly at RAYPCB?

The lead time for PCB assembly at RAYPCB varies depending on the complexity of the PCB design and the quantity ordered. Typical lead times range from 7 to 15 days, but expedited options are available for urgent orders.

3. What types of components can RAYPCB assemble?

RAYPCB can assemble a wide range of surface mount and through-hole components, including chips, capacitors, resistors, connectors, and more. They can also accommodate specialized components such as BGAs, QFNs, and LGAs.

4. Does RAYPCB offer turnkey PCB assembly services?

Yes, RAYPCB offers turnkey PCB assembly services, which means they can handle the entire process from PCB fabrication to component procurement to final assembly and testing. This simplifies the process for clients and ensures a seamless end-to-end solution.

5. How does RAYPCB ensure the quality of its PCB assemblies?

RAYPCB follows a strict quality control process that includes automated optical inspection (AOI), X-ray inspection, and functional testing. They also adhere to industry standards such as IPC-A-610 and ISO 9001 to ensure consistent quality. Additionally, RAYPCB has a dedicated quality control team that oversees the entire process and conducts regular audits and inspections.


PCB assembly is a complex and precise process that requires skill, experience, and advanced equipment. RAYPCB has mastered the art of PCB assembly and offers a range of services to meet the needs of its clients.

By following a strict industrial process that includes PCB fabrication, solder paste stenciling, component placement, reflow soldering, inspection and quality control, and final assembly and packaging, RAYPCB ensures the highest quality PCB assemblies.

With benefits such as quality, reliability, speed, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness, RAYPCB is the ideal partner for your PCB assembly needs. Whether you need prototypes or large-scale production, RAYPCB has the expertise and equipment to deliver high-quality results.

Contact RAYPCB for Your PCB Assembly Needs

If you have a PCB assembly project in mind, contact RAYPCB today to discuss your needs and get a quote. With their commitment to quality, reliability, and customer satisfaction, RAYPCB is the partner you can trust for all your PCB assembly needs.

Visit the RAYPCB website to learn more about their services and to request a quote. You can also email them at or call them at +86-755-33104825.

Choose RAYPCB for your next PCB assembly project and experience the difference that quality and expertise can make.